Virtual Ophthalmotrope

Apart from the simulation of eye motility disorders and their surgical correction, SEE++ can also be used as a purely geometrical model of the oculomotor plant. We see SEE++ as a “virtual ophthalmotrope” or “software ophthalmotrope” (German: “virtuelles Ophthalmotrop”), which offers the same features as mechanical ophthalmotropes (like those from Ruete (1845), Wundt (1862) and others) and much more.

Conventional ophthalmotropes have several disadvantages compared to a “virtual ophthalmotrope” like SEE++:

  • Muscles are reduced to single strings
  • Muscle forces cannot be simulated
  • Connective tissues (Pulleys) are not modeled
  • Parameterization is very difficult (e.g. globe radius, muscle lengths…)
  • Pathological situations cannot be simulated
  • Binocular control of the eyes is missing

SEE++, as a “virtual ophthalmotrope”, can be easily modified by changing different parameters such as globe radius, muscle lengths, muscle insertions, muscle forces… with the main advantage that its behaviour is only restricted by the selection of parameters and not by the materials and mechanisms of a physical model.

virtual ophthalmotrope

Due to the highly customizable user interface of the SEE++ system, people who are only interested in using SEE++ as a “virtual ophthalmotrope” can hide all diagram windows and the treeview and focus only on the 3D representation of the oculomotor plant.